Chapter 8. Security

Explain basic security mechanisms including: transport level security, such as basic and mutual authentication and SSL, message level security, XML encryption, XML Digital Signature, and federated identity and trust.

There are two ways with which we can ensure security with Web Services. They are:

  1. Security at Transport level

  2. Security at XML level

Security at Transport level

Transport level security is based on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) that runs beneath HTTP. SSL and TLS provide security features including authentication, data protection, and cryptographic token support for secure HTTP connections. To run with HTTPS, the service endpoint address must be in the form https://. The integrity and confidentiality of transport data, including SOAP messages and HTTP basic authentication, is confirmed when you use SSL and TLS. Web services applications can also use Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) approved ciphers for more secure TLS connections.

Implementing security at the transport level means, securing the network protocol, a Web Service uses for communication. SSL is the Industry accepted standard protocol for secured encrypted communications over TCP/IP. In this model, a Web Service client will use SSL to open a secure socket to a Web Service. The client then sends and receives SOAP messages over this secured socket using HTTPS. The SSL implementation takes care of ensuring privacy by encrypting all the network traffic on the socket. SSL can also authenticate the Web Service to the client using the PKI infrastructure.

HTTPS provides encryption, which ensures privacy and message integrity. HTTPS also authenticates through the use of certificates, which can be used on the server side, the client side, or both. HTTPS with server-side certificates is the most common configuration on the Web today. In this configuration, clients can authenticate servers, but servers cannot authenticate clients. However, HTTPS can also be used in conjunction with basic or digest authentication, which provides a weaker form of authentication for clients.

HTTP basic authentication uses a user name and password to authenticate a service client to a secure endpoint. A simple way to provide authentication data for the service client is to authenticate to the protected service endpoint to the HTTP basic authentication. The basic authentication is located in the HTTP header that carries the SOAP request. When the application server receives the HTTP request, the user name and password are retrieved and verified using the authentication mechanism specific to the server. Although the basic authentication data is base64-encoded, sending data over HTTPS is recommended. The integrity and confidentiality of the data can be protected by the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol.

Security at XML level

There are some standards available for securing Web Services at XML level. They are:

  • XML Encryption

    The W3C is coordinating XML Encryption. Its goal is to develop XML syntax for representing encrypted data and to establish procedures for encrypting and decrypting such data. Unlike SSL, with XML Encryption, you can encrypt only the data that needs to be encrypted, for example, only the credit card information in a purchase order XML document:

    
    <purchaseOrder>
      <name>Mikalai Zaikin</name>
      <address> ... </address>
    
      <EncryptedData Type='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Element' 
                    xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/11/temp-xmlenc'>
         <EncryptionMethod Algorithm="urn:nist-gov:tripledes-ede-cbc">
            <s0:someMethod xmlns:s0='http://somens'>ABCD</s0:someMethod>
         </EncryptionMethod>
         <KeyInfo xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#'>
           <KeyName>SharedKey</KeyName>
         </KeyInfo>
         <CipherData>
             <CipherValue>A23B45C564562347e23e</CipherValue>
         </CipherData>
      </EncryptedData>
    
      <prodNumber>8a32gh19908</prodNumber>
      <quantity>1</quantity>
    </purchaseOrder>
    								
    								
    								

    In XML Encryption, your plaintext is either an element or that element's content (that's the finest granularity you get—you can't encrypt, say, half an element's content). After encryption, you get an XML element called EncryptedData, containing the ciphertext in Base64-encoded format. That EncryptedData element replaces your plaintext. That is, if you encrypt element bar in this snippet below:

    
    <foo>
        <bar>secret text</bar>
    </foo>
    								
    								
    you'll get back something like this:
    
    <foo>
        <EncryptedData Type="http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Element" xmlns=...>
            <!-- some info, including the ciphertext -->
        </EncryptedData>
    </foo>
    								
    								
    Whereas if you encrypt element bar's content, the result will look similar to this:
    
    <foo>
        <bar>
            <EncryptedData Type="http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Content" xmlns=...>
                <!-- some info, including the ciphertext -->
            </EncryptedData>        
        </bar>
    </foo>
    								
    								
    Note the difference between the Type attributes in the two examples. From looking at this attribute, we can tell immediately whether the plaintext is an element of just its content.

    EncryptedData is shown below. In this structure "?" denotes zero or one occurrence; "+" denotes one or more occurrences; "*" denotes zero or more occurrences; and the empty element tag means the element must be empty:

    
    <EncryptedData Id? Type? MimeType? Encoding?>
        <EncryptionMethod/>?
        <ds:KeyInfo>
            <EncryptedKey>?
            <AgreementMethod>?
            <ds:KeyName>?
            <ds:RetrievalMethod>?
            <ds:*>?
        </ds:KeyInfo>?
        <CipherData>
            <CipherValue>?
            <CipherReference URI?>?
        </CipherData>
        <EncryptionProperties>?
    </EncryptedData>
    								
    								
    								
    EncryptedData's most important element, CipherData, either directly contains the ciphertext in CipherValue, or, if CipherReference is used, a reference to it. The other elements are optional because usually the receiving party already has the information they contain. For instance, EncryptionMethod lets you specify the algorithm and key size, but usually you and the other party will agree on those beforehand. The same goes for KeyInfo: it gives you the flexibility to give the other party the material to decrypt your message, but you'd probably want to sent it through some out-of-band mechanism. EncryptionProperties serves as another optional element used for, optional information, such as a date/time stamp.

    Consider the following fictitious payment information, which includes identification information and information appropriate to a payment method (e.g., credit card, money transfer, or electronic check):

    
    <?xml version='1.0'?>
    <PaymentInfo xmlns='http://example.org/paymentv2'>
      <Name>John Smith</Name>
      <CreditCard Limit='5,000' Currency='USD'>
        <Number>4019 2445 0277 5567</Number>
        <Issuer>Example Bank</Issuer>
        <Expiration>04/02</Expiration>
      </CreditCard>
    </PaymentInfo>
    								
    								
    Credit card number is sensitive information. If the application wishes to keep that information confidential, it can encrypt the CreditCard element:
    
    <?xml version='1.0'?>
    <PaymentInfo xmlns='http://example.org/paymentv2'>
      <Name>John Smith</Name>
      <EncryptedData Type='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Element' 
                    xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#'>
        <CipherData>
          <CipherValue>A23B45C56</CipherValue>
        </CipherData>
      </EncryptedData>
    </PaymentInfo>
    								
    								
    By encrypting the entire CreditCard element from its start to end tags, the identity of the element itself is hidden. The CipherData element contains the encrypted serialization of the CreditCard element.

    Encrypting XML Element Content (Elements)

    As an alternative scenario, it may be useful for intermediate agents to know that John used a credit card with a particular limit, but not the card's number, issuer, and expiration date. In this case, the content (character data or children elements) of the CreditCard element is encrypted:

    
    <?xml version='1.0'?> 
    <PaymentInfo xmlns='http://example.org/paymentv2'>
      <Name>John Smith</Name>
      <CreditCard Limit='5,000' Currency='USD'>
        <EncryptedData xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#'
                        Type='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Content'>
          <CipherData>
            <CipherValue>A23B45C56</CipherValue>
          </CipherData>
        </EncryptedData>
      </CreditCard>
    </PaymentInfo>
    								
    								

    Encrypting XML Element Content (Character Data)

    We can consider the scenario in which all the information except the actual credit card number can be in the clear, including the fact that the Number element exists:

    
    <?xml version='1.0'?> 
    <PaymentInfo xmlns='http://example.org/paymentv2'>
      <Name>John Smith</Name>
      <CreditCard Limit='5,000' Currency='USD'>
        <Number>
          <EncryptedData xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#'
                          Type='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Content'>
            <CipherData>
              <CipherValue>A23B45C56</CipherValue>
            </CipherData>
          </EncryptedData>
        </Number>
        <Issuer>Example Bank</Issuer>
        <Expiration>04/02</Expiration>
      </CreditCard>
    </PaymentInfo>
    								
    								
    Both CreditCard and Number are in the clear, but the character data content of Number is encrypted.

    Encrypting Arbitrary Data and XML Documents

    If the application scenario requires all of the information to be encrypted, the whole document is encrypted as an octet sequence. This applies to arbitrary data including XML documents:

    
    <?xml version='1.0'?> 
    <EncryptedData xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#' MimeType='text/xml'>
      <CipherData>
        <CipherValue>A23B45C56</CipherValue>
      </CipherData>
    </EncryptedData>
    								
    								

    Super-Encryption: Encrypting EncryptedData

    An XML document may contain zero or more EncryptedData elements. EncryptedData cannot be the parent or child of another EncryptedData element. However, the actual data encrypted can be anything, including EncryptedData and EncryptedKey elements (i.e., super-encryption). During super-encryption of an EncryptedData or EncryptedKey element, one must encrypt the entire element. Encrypting only the content of these elements, or encrypting selected child elements is an invalid instance under the provided schema. For example, consider the following:

    
    <pay:PaymentInfo xmlns:pay='http://example.org/paymentv2'>
      <EncryptedData Id='ED1' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#'
                   Type='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Element'>
        <CipherData>
          <CipherValue>originalEncryptedData</CipherValue>
        </CipherData>
      </EncryptedData>
    </pay:PaymentInfo>
    								
    								
    A valid super-encryption of "//xenc:EncryptedData[@Id='ED1']" would be:
    
    <pay:PaymentInfo xmlns:pay='http://example.org/paymentv2'>
      <EncryptedData Id='ED2' xmlns='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#'
                   Type='http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Element'>
        <CipherData>
          <CipherValue>newEncryptedData</CipherValue>
        </CipherData>
      </EncryptedData>
    </pay:PaymentInfo>
    								
    								
    where the CipherValue content of 'newEncryptedData' is the base64 encoding of the encrypted octet sequence resulting from encrypting the EncryptedData element with Id='ED1'.

  • XML Digital Signature

    XML Digital Signature, like any other digital signing technology, provides authentication, data integrity (tamper-proofing), and nonrepudiation. Of all the XML-based security initiatives, the XML digital signature effort is the furthest along. The W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) and the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) jointly coordinate this effort. The project aims to develop XML syntax for representing digital signatures over any data type. The XML digital signature specification also defines procedures for computing and verifying such signatures. Another important area that XML digital signature addresses is the canonicalization of XML documents. Canonicalization enables the generation of the identical message digest and thus identical digital signatures for XML documents that are syntactically equivalent but different in appearance due to, for example, a different number of white spaces present in the documents. So why XML Digital Signature? XML Digital Signature provides a flexible means of signing and supports diverse sets of Internet transaction models. For example, you can sign individual items or multiple items of an XML document. The document you sign can be local or even a remote object, as long as those objects can be referenced through a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier). You can sign not only XML data, but also non-XML data. A signature can be either enveloped or enveloping, which means the signature can be either embedded in a document being signed or reside outside the document. XML digital signature also allows multiple signing levels for the same content, thus allowing flexible signing semantics. For example, the same content can be semantically signed, cosigned, witnessed, and notarized by different people.

    The XML signature specification is an extremely flexible tool for generating digitally signed XML documents. It supports signing complete XML documents, parts of XML documents and even non-XML documents. The resulting signature is a well-formed XML fragment that can either be used on its own (a standalone XML document) or embedded within a more complex XML document.

    XML Signature Forms:

    1. Enveloped

      An enveloped signature is useful when you have a simple XML document which you to guarantee the integrity of. For example, XKMS messages can use enveloped signatures to convey "trustable" answers from a server back to a client.

      The signature is over the XML content that contains the signature as an element. The content provides the root XML document element. Obviously, enveloped signatures must take care not to include their own value in the calculation of the SignatureValue.

      Signature is enveloped within the content been signed:

      									
      <doc Id="myID">
      	<myElement>
      		...
      	</myElement>
      	<Signature>
      		...
      		<Reference URI="#myID"/>
      		...
      	</Signature>
      </doc>
      
      											

    2. Enveloping

      An enveloping signature is useful when the signing facility wants to add its own metadata (such as a timestamp) to a signature - it doesn't have to modify the source document, but can include additional data covered by the signature within the signature document it generates. (An XML Digital Signature can sign multiple objects at once, so enveloping is usually combined with another format).

      The signature is over content found within an Object element of the signature itself. The Object (or its content) is identified via a Reference (via a URI fragment identifier or transform).

      Signature envelopes the contents to be signed:

      									
      <Signature>
      	...
      	<Reference URI="#myRefObjectID">
      		...
      	</Reference>
      		
      	<Object Id="myRefObjectID">
      		<doc>
      			<myElement>
      				...
      			</myElement>
      			...
      		</doc>
      	</Object>		
      </Signature>
      
      											

    3. Detached

      A detached signature is useful when you can't modify the source; the downside is that it requires two XML documents - the source and its signature - to be carried together. In other words, it requires a packaging format - enter SOAP headers.

      The signature is over content external to the Signature element, and can be identified via a URI or transform. Consequently, the signature is "detached" from the content it signs. This definition typically applies to separate data objects, but it also includes the instance where the Signature and data object reside within the same XML document but are SIBLING elements.

      Signature is external to the content that is signed:

      									
      <Signature>
      	...
      	<Reference URI="http://www.buy.com/books/purchaseWS"/>
      	...
      </Signature>
      
      											

    XML Signatures are applied to arbitrary digital content (data objects) via an indirection. Data objects are digested, the resulting value is placed in an element (with other information) and that element is then digested and cryptographically signed. XML digital signatures are represented by the Signature element which has the following structure (where "?" denotes zero or one occurrence; "+" denotes one or more occurrences; and "*" denotes zero or more occurrences):

    									
    <Signature ID?> 
        <SignedInfo>
            <CanonicalizationMethod/>
            <SignatureMethod/>
            (<Reference URI? >
                (<Transforms>)?
                <DigestMethod>
                <DigestValue>
            </Reference>)+
        </SignedInfo>
        <SignatureValue> 
        (<KeyInfo>)?
        (<Object ID?>)*
    </Signature>
    
    								
    Signatures are related to data objects via URIs. Within an XML document, signatures are related to local data objects via fragment identifiers. Such local data can be included within an enveloping signature or can enclose an enveloped signature. Detached signatures are over external network resources or local data objects that reside within the same XML document as sibling elements; in this case, the signature is neither enveloping (signature is parent) nor enveloped (signature is child). Since a Signature element (and its Id attribute value/name) may co-exist or be combined with other elements (and their IDs) within a single XML document, care should be taken in choosing names such that there are no subsequent collisions that violate the ID uniqueness validity constraint.

    Simple example:

    									
    <Signature Id="MyFirstSignature" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#"> 
      <SignedInfo> 
        <CanonicalizationMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/> 
        <SignatureMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#dsa-sha1"/> 
        <Reference URI="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-xhtml1-20000126/"> 
          <Transforms> 
            <Transform Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/> 
          </Transforms> 
          <DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/> 
          <DigestValue>j6lwx3rvEPO0vKtMup4NbeVu8nk=</DigestValue> 
        </Reference> 
      </SignedInfo> 
      
      <SignatureValue>MC0CFFrVLtRlk=...</SignatureValue> 
    
      <KeyInfo> 
        <KeyValue>
          <DSAKeyValue> 
            <P>...</P><Q>...</Q><G>...</G><Y>...</Y> 
          </DSAKeyValue> 
        </KeyValue> 
      </KeyInfo> 
    </Signature>
    
    								

    The required SignedInfo element is the information that is actually signed. Core validation of SignedInfo consists of two mandatory processes: validation of the signature over SignedInfo and validation of each Reference digest within SignedInfo. Note that the algorithms used in calculating the SignatureValue are also included in the signed information while the SignatureValue element is outside SignedInfo.

    The CanonicalizationMethod is the algorithm that is used to canonicalize the SignedInfo element before it is digested as part of the signature operation. Note that this example is not in canonical form.

    The SignatureMethod is the algorithm that is used to convert the canonicalized SignedInfo into the SignatureValue. It is a combination of a digest algorithm and a key dependent algorithm and possibly other algorithms such as padding, for example RSA-SHA1. The algorithm names are signed to resist attacks based on substituting a weaker algorithm. To promote application interoperability we specify a set of signature algorithms that MUST be implemented, though their use is at the discretion of the signature creator. We specify additional algorithms as RECOMMENDED or OPTIONAL for implementation; the design also permits arbitrary user specified algorithms.

    Each Reference element includes the digest method and resulting digest value calculated over the identified data object. It also may include transformations that produced the input to the digest operation. A data object is signed by computing its digest value and a signature over that value. The signature is later checked via reference and signature validation.

    KeyInfo indicates the key to be used to validate the signature. Possible forms for identification include certificates, key names, and key agreement algorithms and information - we define only a few. KeyInfo is optional for two reasons. First, the signer may not wish to reveal key information to all document processing parties. Second, the information may be known within the application's context and need not be represented explicitly. Since KeyInfo is outside of SignedInfo, if the signer wishes to bind the keying information to the signature, a Reference can easily identify and include the KeyInfo as part of the signature.

    How to Create an XML Signature:

    1. Determine which resources are to be signed.

      This will take the form of identifying the resources through a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).

      • "http://www.abccompany.com/index.html" - would reference an HTML page on the Web

      • "http://www.abccompany.com/logo.gif" - would reference a GIF image on the Web

      • "http://www.abccompany.com/xml/po.xml" - would reference an XML file on the Web

      • "http://www.abccompany.com/xml/po.xml#sender1" - would reference a specific element in an XML file on the Web

    2. Calculate the digest of each resource.

      In XML signatures, each referenced resource is specified through a Reference element and its digest (calculated on the identified resource and not the Filename>Reference element itself) is placed in a DigestValue child element like:

      
      <Reference URI="http://www.abccompany.com/news/2000/03_27_00.htm">
        <DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1" />
        <DigestValue>j6lwx3rvEPO0vKtMup4NbeVu8nk=</DigestValue> 
      </Reference>
      
      <Reference URI="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xmldsig-core-20000228/signature-example.xml">
        <DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/>
        <DigestValue>UrXLDLBIta6skoV5/A8Q38GEw44=</DigestValue> 
      </Reference>
      											
      											
      The DigestMethod element identifies the algorithm used to calculate the digest.

    3. Collect the Reference elements

      Collect the Reference elements (with their associated digests) within a SignedInfo element like:

      
      <SignedInfo Id="foobar">
        <CanonicalizationMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/>
        <SignatureMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#dsa-sha1" /> 
        
        <Reference URI="http://www.abccompany.com/news/2000/03_27_00.htm">
          <DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1" />
          <DigestValue>j6lwx3rvEPO0vKtMup4NbeVu8nk=</DigestValue> 
        </Reference>
        
        <Reference URI="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xmldsig-core-20000228/signature-example.xml">
          <DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/>
          <DigestValue>UrXLDLBIta6skoV5/A8Q38GEw44=</DigestValue> 
        </Reference>
      </SignedInfo>
      											
      											
      The CanonicalizationMethod element indicates the algorithm was used to canonize the SignedInfo element. Different data streams with the same XML information set may have different textual representations, e.g. differing as to whitespace. To help prevent inaccurate verification results, XML information sets must first be canonized before extracting their bit representation for signature processing. The SignatureMethod element identifies the algorithm used to produce the signature value.

    4. Signing

      Calculate the digest of the SignedInfo element, sign that digest and put the signature value in a SignatureValue element:

      
      <SignatureValue>MC0CFFrVLtRlk=...</SignatureValue>
      											
      											

    5. Add key information

      If keying information is to be included, place it in a KeyInfo element. Here the keying information contains the X.509 certificate for the sender, which would include the public key needed for signature verification:

      
      <KeyInfo>
        <X509Data>
          <X509SubjectName>CN=Ed Simon,O=XMLSec Inc.,ST=OTTAWA,C=CA</X509SubjectName>
          <X509Certificate>MIID5jCCA0+gA...lVN</X509Certificate>
        </X509Data>
      </KeyInfo>
      											
      											

    6. Enclose in a Signature element

      Place the SignedInfo, SignatureValue, and KeyInfo elements into a Signature element. The Signature element comprises the XML signature:

      
      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
      <Signature xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#">
        <SignedInfo Id="foobar">
          <CanonicalizationMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-xml-c14n-20010315"/>
          <SignatureMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#dsa-sha1" /> 
        
          <Reference URI="http://www.abccompany.com/news/2000/03_27_00.htm">
            <DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1" />
            <DigestValue>j6lwx3rvEPO0vKtMup4NbeVu8nk=</DigestValue> 
          </Reference>
        
          <Reference URI="http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xmldsig-core-20000228/signature-example.xml">
            <DigestMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1"/>
            <DigestValue>UrXLDLBIta6skoV5/A8Q38GEw44=</DigestValue> 
          </Reference>  
          
        </SignedInfo>
        
        <SignatureValue>MC0E~LE=</SignatureValue>
      
        <KeyInfo>
          <X509Data>
            <X509SubjectName>CN=Ed Simon,O=XMLSec Inc.,ST=OTTAWA,C=CA</X509SubjectName>
            <X509Certificate>
              MIID5jCCA0+gA...lVN
            </X509Certificate>
          </X509Data>
        </KeyInfo>
      
      </Signature>
      											
      											

    Verifying an XML Signature.

    A brief description of how to verify an XML signature:

    1. Verify the signature of the SignedInfo element. To do so, recalculate the digest of the SignedInfo element (using the digest algorithm specified in the SignatureMethod element) and use the public verification key to verify that the value of the SignatureValue element is correct for the digest of the SignedInfo element.

    2. If this step passes, recalculate the digests of the references contained within the SignedInfo element and compare them to the digest values expressed in each Reference element's corresponding DigestValue element.

  • XKMS (XML Key Management Specification)

    [see next section]

  • SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language)

    [see next section]

Federated identity and trust

There are two possible identity management architectures, one based on a centralized model and the other, on a federated model.

In the centralized model, a single operator performs authentication and authorization by owning and controlling all the identity information. In the federated model, both authentication and authorization tasks are distributed among federated communities. One advantage of the centralized model is that, because a single operator owns and controls everything, constructing and managing the identity network could be easier than with the federated model. However, the centralized model has serious downsides. The most serious one is the dangerous potential for the single operator becoming a tollgate for all transactions over the Internet. For example, the operator might charge a fee for every transaction you make. You might have to pay a few cents or dollars whenever you perform a transaction on eBay. The centralized model has another serious problem: the single operator could represent a single point of security failure or hacker attack. One more reason why the centralized model has not garnered any support, especially from the business community, is because a single operator can take away the most important business asset—that is, customer identity and profile information—from an organization. That results in a serious threat to businesses such as banks and brokerage houses whose success depends on their customer information. This information represents one of the most critical assets to a business, one it is not willing to give up to a third party. The federated model, driven by the Liberty Alliance Project, is designed to correct the centralized model's problems. The goal of the Liberty Alliance Project is to create an open standard for identity, authentication, and authorization, which will lower e-commerce costs and accelerate organizations' commercial opportunities, while at the same time increasing customer satisfaction. In a Liberty architecture, organizations can maintain their own customer/employee data while sharing identity data with partners based on their business objectives and customer preferences.

In the federated identity management architecture scheme, three roles could exist. The first is the role of a consumer. As a consumer, you can have multiple identity profiles, and you can ask different identity providers to maintain these profiles. For example, you might want your HMO to manage your healthcare profile and your brokerage house to maintain your brokerage profile. In fact, as a consumer, you can pick and choose which identity provider to maintain your profile based on price, credibility, service, and so on. In this model, consumers have a final say in terms of who can access what information. Consumers can be a person, a business, or a software entity. In this case, the HMO and brokerage house play the role of identity provider. Identity providers maintain user profile information and can interoperate among themselves as long as they have permission to do so from the profile's owner, the consumer. Identity providers are expected to compete for your business in the future in the same way HMOs, banks, and brokerage houses compete for your business today. The third role is that of the service provider, the merchant who has services to offer consumers. Service providers can customize their services to each consumer by retrieving relevant identity profiles from the identity providers. For example, your travel agent might discover your travel and dining preferences from the identity provider you designated to maintain your travel preference.

In the phase with no federation (separate login for each site), a consumer must log in separately to each site. This phase will then evolve into an environment where multiple identity networks exist. Within a single identity network, single sign-on can be achieved. However, no network-to-network identity propagation is available at this stage. Eventually, these individually constructed and operating identity networks will work together by exchanging their consumers' identity information, thus providing a truly seamless, global-scale identity network, the Liberty Alliance Project's ultimate goal.

The ATM network serves as an analogy for the federated network. Initially, individual banks issued their own ATM cards, and different banks did not interoperate. At this stage, you could not use your ATM card in an ATM machine owned and operated by another bank. These days, you can use your credit card or ATM card in any ATM machine, as long as the bank that owns the machine and your bank are members of the same affiliation network. In the not too distant future, it is not a stretch to think about a single global network to which all banks directly or indirectly belong. The identity network should evolve similarly. One possible challenge of the federated identity network model is that because there are many parties involved, the standard has to be defined in an unambiguous manner. The Liberty Alliance Project addresses that challenge.

Federated Identity allows users to link identity information between accounts without centrally storing personal information. Also, the user can control when and how their accounts and attributes are linked and shared between domains and Service Providers, allowing for greater control over their personal data. In practice, this means that users can be authenticated by one company or website and be recognized and delivered personalized content and services in other locations without having to re-authenticate or sign on with a separate username and password.

"Circle of Trust" is enabled through federated identity and is defined as a group of service providers that share linked identities and have pertinent business agreements in place regarding how to do business and interact with identities. Once a user has been authenticated by a Circle of Trust identity provider, that individual can be easily recognized and take part in targeted services from other service providers within that Circle of Trust. It should be noted that this concept of trust-based relationships between organizations and their individual or joint customers has existed in the offline business world for years; two common examples would include travel alliances and affiliate business partnerships.

Professional hosting     Belorussian informational portal         Free SCWCD 1.4 Study Guide     Free SCBCD 1.3 Study Guide     SCDJWS 1.4 Quiz     Free IBM Certified Associate Developer Study Guide     Free SCJP 5.0 (Tiger) Study Guide     Free Mock Exam Engine     IBM Test 000-287. Enterprise Application Development with IBM WebSphere Studio, V5.0 Study Guide     IBM Test 000-255. Developing with IBM Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software V6 Study Guide


Hosting provided by PerfoHost: KVM VPS provider. See PefoHost's KVM VPS vs OpenVZ/Virtuozzo vs XEN VPS comparative chart.
CRM-exporter: Vehicle Database Script 1999-2011